The Paris Agreement will be open to the signing of the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on 22 April and will be ready for signature for one year. This list includes the countries that signed the agreement at the signing ceremony on 22 April. The Bold States that signed the Paris Agreement and tabled their ratification instrument at the solemn opening to the signing on April 22, 2016. Climate scientist and founder of Germany`s New Climate Institute, Niklas Huhne, said Turkey was “reseming” the list of countries that do not yet need to ratify the agreement. The objective of the agreement is to reduce global warming described in Article 2 by “improving the implementation” of the UNFCCC Unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which sets legally binding emission reduction targets (as well as sanctions for non-compliance) for industrialized countries alone, the Paris Agreement requires all countries – rich, poor , developed and developing – contribute to and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To this end, the Paris Agreement provides for greater flexibility: commitments that countries should make are not included, countries can voluntarily set their emissions targets and countries will not be penalized if they do not meet their proposed targets. But what the Paris agreement requires is to monitor, report and reassess, over time, the objectives of individual and collective countries, in order to bring the world closer to the broader objectives of the agreement. And the agreement stipulates that countries must announce their next round of targets every five years, contrary to the Kyoto Protocol, which was aimed at this target but which contained no specific requirements to achieve this goal. Recognizing that many developing countries and small island developing states that have contributed the least to climate change are most likely to suffer the consequences, the Paris Agreement contains a plan for developed countries – and others that are able to do so – to continue to provide financial resources to help developing countries reduce and increase their capacity to withstand climate change. The agreement builds on the financial commitments of the 2009 Copenhagen Accord, which aimed to increase public and private climate finance to developing countries to $100 billion per year by 2020. (To put it in perspective, in 2017 alone, global military spending amounted to about $1.7 trillion, more than a third of which came from the United States. The Copenhagen Pact also created the Green Climate Fund to mobilize transformation funding with targeted public dollars.